Berkel displacement (APG-D) piles are bored, cast in-place, grouted piles installed by advancing our unique displacement tool into the ground with a drilling platform capable of applying high torque and pull-down (crowd) to the displacement tool. APG-D piles are typically installed with fixed-mast, rotary drill rigs. In loose to medium dense soils, the displacement can lead to increased shaft friction so shorter or higher capacity piles may be installed compared to augered piles. As minimal spoils are generated by the process, the piles are often well-suited for sites with contaminated soils or in urban areas where spoil removal may be costly. Berkel typically installs APG-D piles in 12 to 18 inches diameter. In dense soils, Berkel offers partial-displacement piles that laterally displace some soil, while excavating some soil to the ground surface. Partial displacement piles are typically 14-in to 24-in in diameter.